Data types

Data can be stored in different formats. CrateDB has different types that can be specified if a table is created using the the CREATE TABLE statement. Data types play a central role as they limit what kind of data can be inserted, how it is stored and they also influence the behaviour when the records are queried.

Data type names are reserved words and need to be escaped when used as column names.

Table of contents

Classification

Geographic types

Geographic types are nonscalar values representing points or shapes in a 2D world:

Container types

Container types are nonscalar values that can contain other values:

boolean

A basic boolean type. Accepting true and false as values. Example:

cr> create table my_bool_table (
...   first_column boolean
... );
CREATE OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

Character types

Character types are general purpose strings of character data.

Only character data types without specified length can be analyzed. By default the plain analyzer is used. See Fulltext index with analyzer.

character varying(n), varchar(n)

The character varying(n) or varchar(n) character data types represent variable length strings. All unicode characters are allowed.

The optional length specification n is a positive integer that defines the maximum length, in characters, of the values that have to be stored or cast. The minimum length is 1. The maximum length is defined by the upper integer range.

An attempt to store a string literal that exceeds the specified length of the character data type results in an error.

cr> CREATE TABLE users (id varchar, name varchar(6));
CREATE OK, 1 row affected (... sec)
cr> INSERT INTO users (id, name) VALUES ('1361', 'john doe')
SQLParseException['john doe' is too long for the text type of length: 6]

If the excess characters are all spaces, the string literal will be truncated to the specified length.

cr> INSERT INTO users (id, name) VALUES ('1', 'john     ')
INSERT OK, 1 row affected (... sec)
cr> SELECT id, name, char_length(name) AS name_length
... FROM users;
+----+------+-------------+
| id | name | name_length |
+----+------+-------------+
| 1  | john |           6 |
+----+------+-------------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

If a value is explicitly cast to varchar(n), then an over-length value will be truncated to n characters without raising an error.

cr> SELECT 'john doe'::varchar(4) AS name;
+------+
| name |
+------+
| john |
+------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

character varying and varchar without the length specifier are aliases for the text data type, see also type aliases.

text

A text-based basic type containing one or more characters. All unicode characters are allowed.

cr> CREATE TABLE users (name text);
CREATE OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

Note

Maximum indexed string length is restricted to 32766 bytes, when encoded with UTF-8 unless the string is analyzed using full text or indexing and the usage of the Column store is disabled.

Note

There is no difference in storage costs among all character data types.

Numeric types

CrateDB supports a set of the following numeric data types:

Name

Size

Description

Range

smallint

2 bytes

small-range integer

-32,768 to 32,767

integer

4 bytes

typical choice for integer

-2^31 to 2^31-1

bigint

8 bytes

large-range integer

-2^63 to 2^63-1

numeric

variable

user-specified precision, exact

up to 131072 digits before the decimal point; up to 16383 digits after the decimal point

real

4 bytes

inexact, variable-precision

6 decimal digits precision

double precision

8 bytes

inexact, variable-precision

15 decimal digits precision

Floating-Point Types

The real and double precision data types are inexact, variable-precision numeric types. It means that these types are stored as an approximation. Therefore, storage, calculation, and retrieval of the value will not always result in an exact representation of the actual floating-point value.

For instance, the result of applying sum or avg aggregate functions may slightly vary between query executions or comparing floating-point values for equality might not always match.

Special floating point values

CrateDB conforms to the IEEE 754 standard concerning special values for real and double precision floating point data types. This means that it also supports NaN, Infinity, -Infinity (negative infinity), and -0 (signed zero).

cr> SELECT 0.0 / 0.0 AS a, 1.0 / 0.0 as B, 1.0 / -0.0 AS c;
+-----+----------+-----------+
| a   | b        | c         |
+-----+----------+-----------+
| NaN | Infinity | -Infinity |
+-----+----------+-----------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

These special numeric values can also be inserted into a column of type real or double precision using a text literal.

cr> create table my_table3 (
...   first_column integer,
...   second_column bigint,
...   third_column smallint,
...   fourth_column double precision,
...   fifth_column real,
...   sixth_column char
... );
CREATE OK, 1 row affected (... sec)
cr> INSERT INTO my_table3 (fourth_column, fifth_column)
... VALUES ('NaN', 'Infinity');
INSERT OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

Arbitrary Precision Numbers

Note

The storage of the numeric data type is not supported. Therefore, it is not possible to create tables with numeric fields.

The numeric type literals store exact numeric data values and perform exact calculations on them.

This type is usually used when it is important to preserve exact precision or handle values that exceed the range of the numeric types of the fixed length. The aggregations and arithmetic operations on numeric values are much slower compared to operations on the integer or floating-point types.

The numeric type can be configured with the precision and scale. The precision of a numeric is the total count of significant digits in the unscaled numeric value. The scale of a numeric is the count of decimal digits in the fractional part, to the right of the decimal point. For example, the number 123.45 has a precision of 5 and a scale of 2. Integers have a scale of zero.

To declare the numeric type with the precision and scale use the syntax:

NUMERIC(precision, scale)

Alternatively, only the precision can be specified, the scale will be zero or positive integer in this case:

NUMERIC(precision)

Without configuring the precision and scale the numeric type value will be represented by an unscaled value of the unlimited precision:

NUMERIC

The numeric type backed internally by the Java BigDecimal class. For more detailed information about its behaviour, see BigDecimal documentation.

ip

The ip type allows to store IPv4 and IPv6 addresses by inserting their string representation. Internally IP addresses are stored as bigint allowing expected sorting, filtering and aggregation.

Example:

cr> create table my_table_ips (
...   fqdn text,
...   ip_addr ip
... );
CREATE OK, 1 row affected (... sec)
cr> insert into my_table_ips (fqdn, ip_addr)
... values ('localhost', '127.0.0.1'),
...        ('router.local', '0:0:0:0:0:ffff:c0a8:64');
INSERT OK, 2 rows affected (... sec)
cr> insert into my_table_ips (fqdn, ip_addr)
... values ('localhost', 'not.a.real.ip');
SQLParseException[Cannot cast `'not.a.real.ip'` of type `text` to type `ip`]

IP addresses support the operator <<, which checks for subnet inclusion using CIDR notation. The left-hand operand must be of type ip and the right-hand must be of type text (e.g., '192.168.1.5' << '192.168.1/24').

Date and time types

Name

Size

Description

Range

timestamp with time zone

8 bytes

time and date with time zone

292275054BC to 292278993AD

timestamp without time zone

8 bytes

time and date without time zone

292275054BC to 292278993AD

time with time zone timetz

12 bytes

time with time zone

00:00:00.000000 to 23:59:59.999999 zone: -18:00 to 18:00

date

8 bytes

date in utc

292275054BC to 292278993AD

Timestamps

The timestamp types consist of the concatenation of a date and time, followed by an optional time zone.

Internally, timestamp values are mapped to the UTC milliseconds since 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z stored as bigint.

Timestamps are always returned as bigint values.

The syntax for timestamp string literals is as follows:

date-element [time-separator [time-element [offset]]]

time-separator: 'T' | ' '
date-element:   yyyy-MM-dd
time-element:   HH:mm:ss [fraction]
fraction:       '.' digit+
offset:         {+ | -} HH [:mm] | 'Z'

For more detailed information about the date and time elements, see pattern letters and symbols.

Caution

When inserting timestamps smaller than -999999999999999 (equals to -29719-04-05T22:13:20.001Z) or bigger than 999999999999999 (equals to 33658-09-27T01:46:39.999Z) rounding issues may occur.

Note

Due to internal date parsing, not the full bigint range is supported for timestamp values, but only dates between year 292275054BC and 292278993AD, which is slightly smaller.

timestamp with time zone

A string literal that contain a timestamp value with the time zone will be converted to UTC considering its offset for the time zone.

cr> select '1970-01-02T00:00:00+0100'::timestamp with time zone as ts_z,
...        '1970-01-02T00:00:00Z'::timestamp with time zone ts_z,
...        '1970-01-02T00:00:00'::timestamp with time zone ts_z,
...        '1970-01-02 00:00:00'::timestamp with time zone ts_z_sql_format;
+----------+----------+----------+-----------------+
|     ts_z |     ts_z |     ts_z | ts_z_sql_format |
+----------+----------+----------+-----------------+
| 82800000 | 86400000 | 86400000 |        86400000 |
+----------+----------+----------+-----------------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

Timestamps will also accept a bigint representing UTC milliseconds since the epoch or a real or double precision representing UTC seconds since the epoch with milliseconds as fractions.

cr> select 1.0::timestamp with time zone AS ts;
+------+
|   ts |
+------+
| 1000 |
+------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

timestamp without time zone

A string literal that contain a timestamp value with the time zone will be converted to UTC without considering the time zone indication.

cr> select '1970-01-02T00:00:00+0200'::timestamp without time zone as ts,
...        '1970-01-02T00:00:00+0400'::timestamp without time zone as ts,
...        '1970-01-02T00:00:00Z'::timestamp without time zone as ts,
...        '1970-01-02 00:00:00Z'::timestamp without time zone as ts_sql_format;
+----------+----------+----------+---------------+
|       ts |       ts |       ts | ts_sql_format |
+----------+----------+----------+---------------+
| 86400000 | 86400000 | 86400000 |      86400000 |
+----------+----------+----------+---------------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

Note

If a column is dynamically created the type detection won’t recognize date time types. That means date type columns must always be declared beforehand.

timestamp with/without time zone AT TIME ZONE zone

AT TIME ZONE converts a timestamp without time zone to/from a timestamp with time zone. It has the following variants:

Expression

Return Type

Description

timestamp without time zone AT TIME ZONE zone

timestamp with time zone

Treat given time stamp without time zone as located in the specified time zone

timestamp with time zone AT TIME ZONE zone

timestamp without time zone

Convert given time stamp with time zone to the new time zone, with no time zone designation

In these expressions, the desired time zone is specified as a string (e.g., ‘Europe/Madrid’, ‘+02:00’).

The scalar function TIMEZONE (zone, timestamp) is equivalent to the SQL-conforming timestamp construct AT TIME ZONE zone.

time with time zone

The time type consists of time followed by an optional time zone.

timetz is an alias for time with time zone.

time with time zone literals can be constructed using a string literal and a cast. The syntax for string literal is as follows:

time-element [offset]

time-element: time-only [fraction]
time-only:    HH[[:][mm[:]ss]]
fraction:     '.' digit+
offset:       {+ | -} time-only | geo-region
geo-region:   As defined by ISO 8601.

Where time-only can contain optional seconds, or optional minutes and seconds, and can use : as a separator optionally.

fraction accepts up to 6 digits, as precision is in micro seconds.

Time zone syntax as defined by ISO 8601 time zone designators.

Note

This type cannot be used in CREATE TABLE or ALTER statements.

cr> select '13:59:59.999999'::timetz;
+------------------+
| 13:59:59.999999  |
+------------------+
| [50399999999, 0] |
+------------------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

cr> select '13:59:59.999999+02:00'::timetz;
+-----------------------+
| 13:59:59.999999+02:00 |
+-----------------------+
| [50399999999, 7200]   |
+-----------------------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

date

Note

The storage of the date data type is not supported. Therefore, it is not possible to create tables with date fields.

The date data type can be used to represent values with a year, month and a day.

To construct values of the type date you can cast a string literal or a numeric literal to date. If a numeric value is used, it must contain the number of milliseconds since 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z.

The string format for dates is YYYY-MM-DD. For example 2021-03-09. This format is the only currently supported for PostgreSQL clients.

cr> select '2021-03-09'::date as cd;
+---------------+
|            cd |
+---------------+
| 1615248000000 |
+---------------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

Interval

Interval literal

An interval literal represents a span of time and can be either a year-month or day-time literal. The generic literal synopsis defined as following

<interval_literal> ::=
    INTERVAL [ <sign> ] <string_literal> <interval_qualifier>

<interval_qualifier> ::=
    <start_field> [ TO <end_field>]

<start_field> ::= <datetime_field>
<end_field> ::= <datetime_field>

<datetime_field> ::=
      YEAR
    | MONTH
    | DAY
    | HOUR
    | MINUTE
    | SECOND
year-month

A year-month literal includes either YEAR, MONTH or a contiguous subset of these fields.

<year_month_literal> ::=
    INTERVAL [ {+ | -} ]'yy' <interval_qualifier> |
    INTERVAL [ {+ | -} ]'[ yy- ] mm' <interval_qualifier>

For example:

cr> select INTERVAL '01-02' YEAR TO MONTH AS result;
+------------------------+
| result                 |
+------------------------+
| 1 year 2 mons 00:00:00 |
+------------------------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)
day-time

A day-time literal includes either DAY, HOUR, MINUTE, SECOND or a contiguous subset of these fields.

When using SECOND, it is possible to define more digits representing a number of fractions of a seconds with .nn. The allowed fractional seconds precision of SECOND ranges from 0 to 6 digits.

<day_time_literal> ::=
    INTERVAL [ {+ | -} ]'dd [ <space> hh [ :mm [ :ss ]]]' <interval_qualifier>
    INTERVAL [ {+ | -} ]'hh [ :mm [ :ss [ .nn ]]]' <interval_qualifier>
    INTERVAL [ {+ | -} ]'mm [ :ss [ .nn ]]' <interval_qualifier>
    INTERVAL [ {+ | -} ]'ss [ .nn ]' <interval_qualifier>

For example:

cr> select INTERVAL '10 23:10' DAY TO MINUTE AS result;
+-------------------------+
| result                  |
+-------------------------+
| 1 weeks 3 days 23:10:00 |
+-------------------------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)
string-literal

An interval string-literal can be defined by a combination of day-time-literal and year-month-literal or using the iso-8601-format or PostgreSQL-format.

For example:

cr> select INTERVAL '1-2 3 4:5:6' AS result;
+-------------------------------+
| result                        |
+-------------------------------+
| 1 year 2 mons 3 days 04:05:06 |
+-------------------------------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)
ISO-8601 format

The iso-8601 format describes a duration of time using the ISO 8601 duration format syntax.

For example:

cr> select INTERVAL 'P1Y2M3DT4H5M6S' AS result;
+-------------------------------+
| result                        |
+-------------------------------+
| 1 year 2 mons 3 days 04:05:06 |
+-------------------------------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)
PostgreSQL format

The PostgreSQL format describes a duration of time using the PostgreSQL interval format syntax.

For example:

cr> select INTERVAL '1 year 2 months 3 days 4 hours 5 minutes 6 seconds' AS result;
+-------------------------------+
| result                        |
+-------------------------------+
| 1 year 2 mons 3 days 04:05:06 |
+-------------------------------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

Temporal arithmetic

The following table specifies the declared types of arithmetic expressions that involve temporal operands:

Operand

Operator

Operand

timestamp

-

timestamp

interval

+

timestamp

timestamp

+ or -

interval

interval

+ or -

interval

geo_point

A geo_point is a geographic data type used to store latitude and longitude coordinates.

Columns with the geo_point type are represented and inserted using an array of doubles in the following format:

[<lon_value>, <lat_value>]

Alternatively a WKT string can also be used to declare geo points:

'POINT ( <lon_value> <lat_value> )'

Note

Empty geo points are not supported.

Additionally, if a column is dynamically created the type detection won’t recognize neither WKT strings nor double arrays. That means columns of type geo_point must always be declared beforehand.

Create table example:

cr> create table my_table_geopoint (
...   id integer primary key,
...   pin geo_point
... ) with (number_of_replicas = 0)
CREATE OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

geo_shape

A geo_shape is a geographic data type used to store 2D shapes defined as GeoJSON geometry objects.

A geo_shape column can store different kinds of GeoJSON geometry objects. Thus it is possible to store e.g. LineString and MultiPolygon shapes in the same column.

Note

3D coordinates are not supported.

Empty Polygon and LineString geo shapes are not supported.

Definition

To define a geo_shape column:

<columnName> geo_shape

A geographical index with default parameters is created implicitly to allow for geographical queries.

The default definition for the column type is:

<columnName> geo_shape INDEX USING geohash WITH (precision='50m', distance_error_pct=0.025)

There are two geographic index types: geohash (the default) and quadtree. These indices are only allowed on geo_shape columns. For more information, see Geo shape index structure.

Both of these index types accept the following parameters:

precision

(Default: 50m) Define the maximum precision of the used index and thus for all indexed shapes. Given as string containing a number and an optional distance unit (defaults to m).

Supported units are inch (in), yard (yd), miles (mi), kilometers (km), meters (m), centimeters (cm), millimeters (mm).

distance_error_pct

(Default: 0.025 (2,5%)) The measure of acceptable error for shapes stored in this column expressed as a percentage value of the shape size The allowed maximum is 0.5 (50%).

The percentage will be taken from the diagonal distance from the center of the bounding box enclosing the shape to the closest corner of the enclosing box. In effect bigger shapes will be indexed with lower precision than smaller shapes. The ratio of precision loss is determined by this setting, that means the higher the distance_error_pct the smaller the indexing precision.

This will have the effect of increasing the indexed shape internally, so e.g. points that are not exactly inside this shape will end up inside it when it comes to querying as the shape has grown when indexed.

tree_levels

Maximum number of layers to be used by the PrefixTree defined by the index type (either geohash or quadtree. See Geo shape index structure).

This can be used to control the precision of the used index. Since this parameter requires a certain level of understanting of the underlying implementation, users may use the precision parameter instead. CrateDB uses the tree_levels parameter internally and this is what is returned via the SHOW CREATE TABLE statement even if you use the precision parameter. Defaults to the value which is 50m converted to precision depending on the index type.

Geo shape index structure

Computations on very complex polygons and geometry collections are exact but very expensive. To provide fast queries even on complex shapes, CrateDB uses a different approach to store, analyze and query geo shapes.

The surface of the earth is represented as a number of grid layers each with higher precision. While the upper layer has one grid cell, the layer below contains many cells for the equivalent space.

Each grid cell on each layer is addressed in 2d space either by a Geohash for geohash trees or by tightly packed coordinates in a Quadtree. Those addresses conveniently share the same address-prefix between lower layers and upper layers. So we are able to use a Trie to represent the grids, and Tries can be queried efficiently as their complexity is determined by the tree depth only.

A geo shape is transformed into these grid cells. Think of this transformation process as dissecting a vector image into its pixelated counterpart, reasonably accurately. We end up with multiple images each with a better resolution, up to the configured precision.

Every grid cell that processed up to the configured precision is stored in an inverted index, creating a mapping from a grid cell to all shapes that touch it. This mapping is our geographic index.

The main difference is that the geohash supports higher precision than the quadtree tree. Both tree implementations support precision in order of fractions of millimeters.

Representation

Columns with the geo_shape type are represented and inserted as object containing a valid GeoJSON geometry object:

{
  type = 'Polygon',
  coordinates = [
     [ [100.0, 0.0], [101.0, 0.0], [101.0, 1.0], [100.0, 1.0], [100.0, 0.0] ]
  ]
}

Alternatively a WKT string can be used to represent a geo_shape as well:

'POLYGON ((5 5, 10 5, 10 10, 5 10, 5 5))'

Note

It is not possible to detect a geo_shape type for a dynamically created column. Like with geo_point type, geo_shape columns need to be created explicitly using either CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE.

object

An object is a container data type and is structured as a collection of key-values.

An object can contain any other type, including further child objects. An object column can be schemaless or can have a defined (i.e., enforced) schema.

Objects are not the same as JSON objects, although they share a lot of similarities. However, objects can be inserted as JSON strings.

Syntax:

<columnName> OBJECT [ ({DYNAMIC|STRICT|IGNORED}) ] [ AS ( <columnDefinition>* ) ]

The only required part of this column definition is OBJECT.

The column policy defining this objects behaviour is optional, if left out DYNAMIC will be used.

The list of subcolumns is optional as well, if left out, this object will have no schema (with a schema created on the fly on first inserts in case of DYNAMIC).

Example:

cr> create table my_table11 (
...   title text,
...   col1 object,
...   col3 object(strict) as (
...     age integer,
...     name text,
...     col31 object as (
...       birthday timestamp with time zone
...     )
...   )
... );
CREATE OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

strict

The column policy can be configured to be strict, rejecting any subcolumn that is not defined upfront in the schema. As you might have guessed, defining strict objects without subcolumns results in an unusable column that will always be null, which is the most useless column one could create.

Example:

cr> create table my_table12 (
...   title text,
...   author object(strict) as (
...     name text,
...     birthday timestamp with time zone
...   )
... );
CREATE OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

dynamic

Another option is dynamic, which means that new subcolumns can be added in this object.

Note that adding new columns to an object with a dynamic policy will affect the schema of the table. Once a column is added, it shows up in the information_schema.columns table and its type and attributes are fixed. They will have the type that was guessed by their inserted/updated value and they will always be analyzed as-is with the plain, which means the column will be indexed but not tokenized in the case of text columns.

If a new column a was added with type integer, adding strings to this column will result in an error.

Examples:

cr> create table my_table13 (
...   title text,
...   author object as (
...     name text,
...     birthday timestamp with time zone
...   )
... );
CREATE OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

which is exactly the same as:

cr> create table my_table14 (
...   title text,
...   author object(dynamic) as (
...     name text,
...     birthday timestamp with time zone
...   )
... );
CREATE OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

New columns added to dynamic objects are, once added, usable as usual subcolumns. One can retrieve them, sort by them and use them in where clauses.

ignored

The third option is ignored. Explicitly defined columns within an ignored object behave the same as those within object columns declared as dynamic or strict (e.g., column constraints are still enforced, columns that would be indexed are still indexed, and so on). The difference is that with ignored, dynamically added columns do not result in a schema update and the values won’t be indexed. This allows you to store values with a mixed type under the same key.

An example:

cr> CREATE TABLE metrics (
...   id TEXT PRIMARY KEY,
...   payload OBJECT (IGNORED) as (
...     tag TEXT
...   )
... );
CREATE OK, 1 row affected (... sec)
cr> INSERT INTO metrics (id, payload) values ('1', {"tag"='AT', "value"=30});
INSERT OK, 1 row affected (... sec)
cr> INSERT INTO metrics (id, payload) values ('2', {"tag"='AT', "value"='str'});
INSERT OK, 1 row affected (... sec)
cr> refresh table metrics;
REFRESH OK, 1 row affected (... sec)
cr> SELECT payload FROM metrics ORDER BY id;
+-------------------------------+
| payload                       |
+-------------------------------+
| {"tag": "AT", "value": 30}    |
| {"tag": "AT", "value": "str"} |
+-------------------------------+
SELECT 2 rows in set (... sec)

Note

Given that dynamically added sub-columns of an ignored objects are not indexed, filter operations on these columns cannot utilize the index and instead a value lookup is performed for each matching row. This can be mitigated by combining a filter using the AND clause with other predicates on indexed columns.

Futhermore, values for dynamically added sub-columns of an ignored objects aren’t stored in a column store, which means that ordering on these columns or using them with aggregates is also slower than using the same operations on regular columns. For some operations it may also be necessary to add an explicit type cast because there is no type information available in the schema.

An example:

cr> SELECT id, payload FROM metrics ORDER BY payload['value']::text DESC;
+----+-------------------------------+
| id | payload                       |
+----+-------------------------------+
| 2  | {"tag": "AT", "value": "str"} |
| 1  | {"tag": "AT", "value": 30}    |
+----+-------------------------------+
SELECT 2 rows in set (... sec)

Given that it is possible have values of different types within the same sub-column of an ignored objects, aggregations may fail at runtime:

cr> SELECT sum(payload['value']::bigint) FROM metrics;
SQLParseException[Cannot cast value `str` to type `bigint`]

Inserting objects

Object literals

You can insert objects using object literals. Object literals are delimited using curly brackets and key-value pairs are connected via =.

Synopsis:

{ [ ident = expr [ , ... ] ] }

Here, ident is the key and expr is the value. The key must be a lowercase column identifier or a quoted mixed-case column identifier. The value must be a value literal (object literals are permitted and can be nested in this way).

Empty object literal:

{}

Boolean type:

{ my_bool_column = true }

Text type:

{ my_str_col = 'this is a text value' }

Number types:

{ my_int_col = 1234, my_float_col = 5.6 }

Array type:

{ my_array_column = ['v', 'a', 'l', 'u', 'e'] }

Camel case keys must be quoted:

{ "CamelCaseColumn" = 'this is a text value' }

Nested object:

{ nested_obj_colmn = { int_col = 1234, str_col = 'text value' } }

You can even specify a placeholder parameter for a value:

{ my_other_column = ? }

Combined:

{ id = 1, name = 'foo', tags = ['apple', 'banana', 'pear'], size = 3.1415, valid = ? }

Note

Even though they look like JSON, object literals are not JSON. If you want to use JSON, skip to the next subsection.

JSON

You can insert objects using JSON strings. To do this, you must type cast the string to an object with an implicit cast (i.e., passing a string into an object column) or an explicit cast (i.e., using the ::object syntax).

Tip

Explicit casts can improve query readability.

Below you will find examples from the previous subsection rewritten to use JSON strings with explicit casts.

Empty object literal:

'{}'::object

Boolean type:

'{ "my_bool_column": true }'::object

Text type:

'{ "my_str_col": "this is a text value" }'::object

Number types:

'{ "my_int_col": 1234, "my_float_col": 5.6 }'::object

Array type:

'{ "my_array_column": ["v", "a", "l", "u", "e"] }'::object

Camel case keys:

'{ "CamelCaseColumn": "this is a text value" }'::object

Nested object:

'{ "nested_obj_colmn": { "int_col": 1234, "str_col": "text value" } }'::object

Note

You cannot use placeholder parameters inside a JSON string.

array

An array is a container data type and is structured as a collection of other data types. Arrays can contain the following:

Array types are defined as follows:

cr> create table my_table_arrays (
...     tags array(text),
...     objects array(object as (age integer, name text))
... );
CREATE OK, 1 row affected (... sec)

An alternative is the following syntax to refer to arrays:

<typeName>[]

This means text[] is equivalent to array(text).

Note

Currently arrays cannot be nested. Something like array(array(text)) won’t work.

Array constructor

Arrays can be written using the array constructor ARRAY[] or short []. The array constructor is an expression that accepts both literals and expressions as its parameters. Parameters may contain zero or more elements.

Synopsis:

[ ARRAY ] '[' element [ , ... ] ']'

All array elements must have the same data type, which determines the inner type of the array. If an array contains no elements, its element type will be inferred by the context in which it occurs, if possible.

Examples

Some valid arrays are:

[]
[null]
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]
['Zaphod', 'Ford', 'Arthur']
[?]
ARRAY[true, false]
ARRAY[column_a, column_b]
ARRAY[ARRAY[1, 2, 1 + 2], ARRAY[3, 4, 3 + 4]]

An alternative way to define arrays is to use string literals and casts to arrays. This requires a string literal that contains the elements separated by comma and enclosed with curly braces:

'{ val1, val2, val3 }'
cr> SELECT '{ab, CD, "CD", null, "null"}'::array(text) AS arr;
+----------------------------------+
| arr                              |
+----------------------------------+
| ["ab", "CD", "CD", null, "null"] |
+----------------------------------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

null elements are interpreted as NULL (none, absent), if you want the literal null string, it has to be enclosed in double quotes.

This variant primarily exists for compatibility with PostgreSQL. The Array constructor syntax explained further above is the preferred way to define constant array values.

Array representation

Arrays are always represented as zero or more literal elements inside square brackets ([]), for example:

[1, 2, 3]
['Zaphod', 'Ford', 'Arthur']

Special character types

Name

Size

Description

char

1 byte

single-byte type

Object Identifier Types

Regproc

The object identifier alias type that is used in the pg_catalog tables for referencing functions. For more information, see PostgreSQL Object Identifier Types.

Casting a column of the regproc alias data type to text or integer results in a function name or its oid, respectively.

Regclass

A type for the object identifier of the pg_class table in the pg_catalog table.

Casting a column of the regclass to text or integer results in a relation name or its oid, respectively.

oidvector

This is a system type used to represent one or more OID values.

It looks similar to an array of integers, but doesn’t support any of the scalar functions or expressions that can be used on regular arrays.

Type conversion

CAST

A type cast specifies a conversion from one data type to another. It will only succeed if the value of the expression is convertible to the desired data type, otherwise an error is returned.

CrateDB supports two equivalent syntaxes for type casts:

cast(expression as type)
expression::type

Example usages:

cr> select cast(port['http'] as boolean) from sys.nodes limit 1;
+-------------------------------+
| cast(port['http'] AS boolean) |
+-------------------------------+
| TRUE                          |
+-------------------------------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)
cr> select (2+10)/2::text AS col;
+-----+
| col |
+-----+
|   6 |
+-----+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

It is also possible to convert array structures to different data types, e.g. converting an array of integer values to a boolean array.

cr> select cast([0,1,5] as array(boolean)) AS active_threads ;
+---------------------+
| active_threads      |
+---------------------+
| [false, true, true] |
+---------------------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

Note

It is not possible to cast to or from object and geopoint, or to geoshape data type.

TRY_CAST

While cast throws an error for incompatible type casts, try_cast returns null in this case. Otherwise the result is the same as with cast.

try_cast(expression as type)

Example usages:

cr> select try_cast('true' as boolean) AS col;
+------+
| col  |
+------+
| TRUE |
+------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

Trying to cast a text to integer, will fail with cast if text is no valid integer but return null with try_cast:

cr> select try_cast(name as integer) AS name_as_int from sys.nodes limit 1;
+-------------+
| name_as_int |
+-------------+
|        NULL |
+-------------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

type 'string'

This cast operation is applied to a string literal and it effectively initializes a constant of an arbitrary type.

Example usages, initializing an integer and a timestamp constant:

cr> select integer '25' AS int;
+-----+
| int |
+-----+
|  25 |
+-----+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)
cr> select timestamp with time zone '2029-12-12T11:44:00.24446' AS ts;
+---------------+
| ts            |
+---------------+
| 1891770240244 |
+---------------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

Note

This cast operation is limited to Primitive types only. For complex types such as array or object use the CAST syntax.

Type aliases

For compatibility with PostgreSQL we include some type aliases which can be used instead of the CrateDB specific type names.

For example, in a type cast:

cr> select 10::int2 AS int2;
+------+
| int2 |
+------+
|   10 |
+------+
SELECT 1 row in set (... sec)

See the table below for a full list of aliases:

Alias

Crate Type

int2

smallint

short

smallint

int

integer

int4

integer

int8

bigint

long

bigint

string

text

varchar

text

character varying

text

name

text

regproc

text

byte

char

float

real

double

double precision

timestamp

timestamp with time zone

timestamptz

timestamp with time zone

Note

The PG_TYPEOF system function can be used to resolve the data type of any expression.

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