Crate JDBC Driver

JDBC is a core API of Java 1.1 and later. It provides a standard set of interfaces to SQL-compliant databases.

Crate provides a type 4 JDBC driver. The driver is written in Pure Java, and communicates in the database system’s own network protocol. Because of this, the driver is platform independent.

Download and Setup

The crate-jdbc jar files are hosted on Bintray and available via JCenter.

Additionally to crate-jdbc there is also a standalone version named crate-jdbc-standalone which already includes its dependencies.


crate-jdbc-standalone should not be used in Maven projects, but might want to be used e.g. as a driver for the Squirrel SQL client.

You can download the latest standalone version directly from the Bintray Repository.

If you want to use crate-jdbc with your Maven project you need to add the Bintray repository to your pom.xml:


Using Gradle:

repositories {

dependencies {
    compile 'io.crate:crate-jdbc:...'

Alternatively you can follow the instructions on the Bintray repository overview page by clicking the “Set me up!” button.

JDBC Driver Class

A connection can be established using DriverManager.getConnection() method, e.g.:

Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("crate://localhost:4300");


With JDBC, a database is represented by a URL (Uniform Resource Locator). With Crate, this takes the following form:

[jdbc:]crate://<host>:<transport-port>[,<host>:<transport-port> , ...][/<schemaName>]

The jdbc: prefix is optional. For example. To connect to a single server the following two formats are both allowed:


In order to connect to multiple servers multiple <host>:<transport-port> pairs can be specified by delimit them using a comma:


The optional /<schemaName> part can be used to use the specified schema by default instead of the doc schema which Crate would use otherwise if no schemaName is specified.

This will implicitly call setSchema on the Connection class. So the following two statements are equivalent:

Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("crate://localhost:4300/foo");

Is the same as:

Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("crate://localhost:4300");


Default schema support requires at least Crate 0.48.1. If the Crate server that is used has a version that is lower than 0.48.1 the specified schema will be ignored and the default doc schema will be used instead.

Crate JDBC properties

Properties can be specified when connecting to Crate using the JDBC driver:

Properties properties = new Properties();
properties.put(<key>, <value>);
Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("crate://localhost:4300", properties);

In addition connection properties can be passed via the JDBC URL:

Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection("crate://localhost:4300?property1=value1&property2=value2");

Crate JDBC driver supports following properties:


Default: false.

Setting the strict property to true will enforce the driver to be compliant with the JDBC specification. Therefore, calling any operations that are not supported by the driver will result in an exception. For instance, disabling the auto-commit mode or setting a savepoint will raise an unsupported operation exception. By default the strict property is optimistically set to false which will make the Crate JDBC driver compatible with most 3rd party applications that usually require transactional databases.


Default: false.


This property is experimental and may be subject to change in future releases.

If this property value is set to true the method getColumns() will also list all subcolumns for columns of type OBJECT. The output is then equivalent to:

SELECT column_name
FROM information_schema.columns
WHERE schema_name = ? AND table_name = ?

By setting the property to false only the root column (the object field name) itself is returned.


3rd party tool ususally quote the identifiers obtained by the getColumns() method. Quoting needs to be disabled when this property is set to true. This however limits the naming of columns, because they must only contain lower case ASCII letters.



This JDBC driver complies to the JDBC 4.1 standard as good as possible and reasonable for a Crate driver. The following mandatory features are not supported:

  • java.sql.ParameterMetaData as returned by e.g. java.sql.PreparedStatement
  • DataSource is not implemented
  • CallableStatement is not implemented as CRATE has no stored procedures to call

For further details about compatibility with all possible JDBC features, see the ResultSet, ResultSetMetaData and DatabaseMetaData implementations.

Though only an optional feature, it is still worth mentioning:

  • the ResultSet implementation is read only (TYPE_FORWARD_ONLY, CONCUR_READ_ONLY), so changes to a ResultSet are not supported. Though DDL and DML statements are supported using the Statement and PreparedStatement interfaces.


This JDBC driver can only be used with Crate version 0.38.0 and higher.

Besides using the most recent version, it is recommended to use the JDBC driver version whose crate-client dependency matches the Crate server. Below, you can see the compatibility table for the JDBC driver version 1.x.x:

Crate JDBC driver Crate
1.8.X 0.49.X
1.9.X 0.51.X
1.10.X 0.54.X
1.11.X 0.54.X
1.12.X 0.54.X
1.13.X 0.55.X
1.14.X 0.56.X


JDBC maps SQL types to POJOs. While this mapping is straightforward for some crate types, for some it is not. This table shows how the crate types are mapped by JDBC and how they should be fetched from a ResultSet instance:

Frozen Delights!
Crate type JDBC type ResultSet method used to get a value
boolean BOOLEAN getBoolean
byte TINYINT getByte
short SMALLINT getShort
integer INTEGER getInteger
long BIGINT getLong
float REAL getFloat
double DOUBLE getDouble
string VARCHAR getString
timestamp TIMESTAMP getDate, getTime, getTimestamp
ip VARCHAR getString
array ARRAY getArray
object JAVA_OBJECT getObject

Array Types

Array types map to java.sql.Array instances. Use the .getArray() to get the underlying java array (it is usually safe to cast it to Object[]) if you prefer. Otherwise, to have JDBC handle the type mapping stuff for you, you can use .getResultSet() and use the related ResultSetMetaData or another way to get the array values converted to Java POJOs. The ResultSet will have one column with the inner array type and the name of the array field (Array.getBaseType()) and as much rows as there are elements in the array.

Statement statement = connection.createStatement();
ResultSet resultSet = statement.executeQuery("select array_field from my_table");
Array arrayFieldArray = resultSet.getArray("array_field");
Object[] arrayFieldValue = arrayFieldValue.getArray();

ResultSet arrayFieldResultSet = arrayFieldArray.getResultSet();
String firstValue = arrayFieldResultSet.getString("array_field");

Object Types

Object columns map to a java.util.Map<String, Object>. You can fetch them using ResultSet.getObject() and cast the result to Map<String, Object>. Be aware that it can be null. This map will contain all the nested columns defined in that object:

Statement statement = connection.createStatement();
ResultSet resultSet = statement.executeQuery("select object_field from my_table");
Map<String, Object> objValue = (Map<String, Object>)resultSet.getObject("object_field");
Object nestedValue = objValue.get("nested_field");